Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a technique that screens embryos created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) for genetic abnormalities . This for of genetic testing is performed on embryos doing an IVF cycle, screening an embryo for genetic defects, which may result in diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Down syndrome, sickle cell anemia, hemophilia, or Tay-Sachs. PGD Enables people with specific inherited conditions to avoid passion it on to their baby. There are various types of PGD available defending on your individual need.
Who uses PGD?
The most common reason for PGD is to ensure a healthy embryo before implantation and avoid having a baby with genetic diseases. The probability of disorder development should be a topic of discussion with your healthcare provider. PGD is recommended to the following candidates:
- Women over the age of 35
- Carriers a singe-gene disorder
- Have a familiy history of a genetic condition
- Have a child with a genetic condition
- Had a number of abortions or miscarriages due to a genetic condito
PGD can also be used for gender selection to avoid sex-linked genetic disorders or form non medical reasons such as family balancing.
What Does PGD look For?
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis can detect chromosomal abnormalities in embryos. PGD can identify the presence of the following disorders:
- Recessive sex-linked disorders: hemophilia, fragile-x syndrome and muscular dystrophies.
- Single gene disorders: cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, Huntington disease, sickle cell anemia
- Chromosomal rearrangements: translocation, inversion, deletions and aneuploidy
- Cancer linked genetic mutations (BRCA1/BRCA2)
Benefits of PGD:
PGD may help parents prevent parents from passing certain devastating diseases to their children. The procedure is done prior to the implantation, which allows the couples to know the about the status of their embryo and decide if they with to continue with the pregnancy. This reduces the need to amniocentesis and abortions due to genetic abnormalities later in pregnancy as well as potential healthcare costs.
PGD has dramatically improved the success rate of IVF. Because it is very common for IVF embryos to have a wrong number of of chromosomes, many pregnancies fail. With preimplantation genetic screening, IVF has sky-rocketed to an 80 percent chance of pregnancy.
Other beneficial applications of PGD is implantation of an embryo to serve as a organ donor to an ill sibling. This involves selection an embryo with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) profile matches an existing sibling with a disease. Parents may harvest cam sells from the new embryo to help their diseased child.
Disadvantages of PGD:
PGD must be used in conjunction with in vitro fertilization (IVF) which can be a costly and invasive procedure. Although it is considered a safe procedure, as with IVF, risks may include ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome (OHSS), infections, reactions to anesthesia, or ectopic pregnancy.
PGD helps reduce but not eliminate the risk of conceiving a child with a genetic factor.